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Chemical Process Technology

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Sunday, August 8, 2010

Hampson and Linde patented efficient air liquefiers with self-intensive or regenerative cooling of the high pressure air by the colder low pressure expanded air in long lengths of coiled heat exchanger. In this simple way, the complications of cascade precoolers employing liquid ethylene and other liquid cryogens were removed and removal of moving parts at low temperature. The cooling being produced by Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion through a nozzle or valve.

Georges Claude, in 1902 produced a piston expansion engine working at the low temperatures required for the liquefaction of air. The increase in cooling effect over the Joule-Thomson nozzle expansion of the Linde-Hampson designs. The expansion through an expansion valve is an irreversible process. energy is removed from the gas stream by allowing it to do some work in an expansion engine or expander.

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The process is based on a suitable modified Claude cycle which minimizes the umber of heat exchangers and also takes care to accommodate the in house developed turbo xpander. The process design is carried out using the standard calculation procedure and is validated by using process simulation software, Aspen Hysys. parametric analysis is carried out to access the role of different component efficiencies in predicting overall system efficiency at the design and off design conditions. In this analysis, the available turbo expander efficiency is considered to evaluate the feasible heat exchanger efficiency in order to optimize the plant efficiency. The thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, pinch point temperature) are evaluated to obtain the optimum mass fraction through turbo expander for maximum liquid yield. This investigation not only gives the analysis of nitrogen liquefier, but also it will act as a basic frame work for any liquefier and helium liquefier in particular as a future mission.


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posted by Webworm, 10:12 AM


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