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Chemical Process Technology

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Sunday, July 26, 2009

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Recommended :Flare is commonly installed in oil and gas process plant to burn hydrocarbon and/or toxic gas to avoid formation of combustible mixture, to minimize green house effect (GHE), to minimize health hazards to personnel on site, etc. Flaring hydrocarbon gas may generate carbon dioxide & water for complete combustion and soot (contribute to smokeless level) & unburnt components (contributes to toxic environment) for incomplete combustion. Besides, heat and noise are generated and radiated and transmitted around the flare tip.

Heat radiated from flare may transmitted in sphere form around the flare tip. Along the transmission, the energy is distributed in sphere form and this lead to reduction in heat radiation level (heat flux, kW/m2). Personnel or equipment along the transmission path will expose to this heat radiation. Personnel or equipment closer to flare tip will experience higher heat radiation level.

With studies conducted by Stoll and Greene (1958), following graph relate heat radiation versus time for Pain threshold and Blister threshold. With heat radiation of 6.3 kW/m2 (2 000 Btu/h·ft2), the pain threshold is reached in 8 s and blistering occurs in 20 s.

The following equation derived from above graph and can be used to relates heat radiation with time for pain and blister thresholds.

Pain threshold :
q = 25.544 x t -0.6742

Blister threshold :
q = 75.691 x t -0.8399

where :
q = heat radiation (kW/m2)
t = time (seconds)

Ref :
(i) A. M. STOLL and L. C. GREEN, The Production of Burns by Thermal Radiation of Medium Intensity, Paper Number 58-A-219, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1958

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posted by Webworm, 1:38 AM


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