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Chemical Process Technology

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Sunday, August 24, 2008

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A pressure vessel designed according to ASME Section 8, Div II, pressure relief valve (PSV) shall be provided to protect the vessel from overpressure caused by process failure and fire contingency. However, there is not further discussion if number of PSV. Now the question is provision of single PSV is sufficient ?

One of the way to assess if provision of single PSV is sufficient is to study the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) demand by the system and what the SIL level of protection system provided. Prior to the assessment, the Safety Integrity Level (SIL), Probability to Failure on Demand (PFD) and the relationship shall be understood.

Safety Integrity Level (SIL)
Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is a simple measurement of the performance of relative risk-reduction level for a Safety Instrumented Function (SIF).

Probability to Failure on Demand (PFD)
Probability to Failure on Demand (PFD) is a reliability measurement of likelihood to fail when it is requested to perform.

Relation Between SIL & PFD
The following tabulate the relationship between SIL and PFD according to IEC61508 and ISA S84.

SIL - IEC 61508 SIL - ISA S84 PFD
1 1 0.1 - 0.01
2 2 0.01 - 0.001
3 3 0.001 - 0.0001
4 - 0.0001 - 0.00001

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Reliability of PSV
The reliability of PSV is subject to type of PSV and how it work. More complicated and more parts involve in single performance would increase the PFD of the device and reduce the SIL can be provided by itself. From "Guidelines for Process Equipment Reliability Data" by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), the PFD for conventional spring loaded PSV and Pilot operated PSV as follow :


Table : PFD for PSVs
PSV
Type
PFD
Lower
PFD
Mean
PFD
Upper
SIL
Provided
Spring Loaded
7.9E-06
2.12E-04
7.98E-04
3
Pilot Operated
9.32E-06
4.15E-03
1.82E-02
2

Example
In one of the previous project, a Pressure Relief Valve (PSV) is provided to protect a pressure contained system. The PSV is conventional spring loaded type. During Instrumented Protective System (IPF) meeting section, a question raised. The Safety Integrity Level (SIL) required by the plant is SIL-2. apart from High-High pressure trip (PAHH), is provision of single PSV protecting the system is sufficient ?
As a conventional spring loaded PSV can deliver SIL-3, single PSV would be sufficient.

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posted by Webworm, 11:43 PM

2 Comments:

Blogger ahmoi said...

How about if my PSV is only size for 1 well (i have 22 wells), can I still give SIL2 credit for this PSV?

December 2, 2010 at 7:32 PM  
Anonymous JoeWong said...

PSV may still SIL2... however, shutdown system for all wells may not allow only 1 well failed at one time... Subject to SIL studies... You may end-up PSV needs to be good for 2 wells (past experience...)

December 3, 2010 at 6:17 AM  

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