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Chemical Process Technology

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Chemical & Process Technology

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Saturday, June 30, 2007


Compact Heat Exchanger
This article contains brief introductary description to several types of compact heat exchnager such as Plate Heat Exchanger, Plate-Fin heat Exchanger, Spiral Heat Exchanger, Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger, Plate and Shell Heat Exchanger and Polymer Heat Exchanger, followedby construction information, construction material, operating limits and principal application.
NTNU




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posted by Webworm, 8:32 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Thursday, June 28, 2007




Copyright (c) 2000-2006 by John H. Lienhard IV and John H. Lienhard V. All rights reserved.

This ebook discusses on several topics related to heat transfer and heat exchange. It content cover the general problem of heat exchange, analysis of heat conduction, convective heat transfer, thermal radiation heat transfer, mass transfer, etc







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posted by Webworm, 4:56 AM | link | 1 Comments |

Wednesday, June 27, 2007

"Heat exchangers are a significant part of many industrial processes that involve energy exchange. Most of these heat exchangers become fouled with use. The United Engineering Foundation, which hosts a conference every three years on the fouling problem, estimates that the cost of heat exchanger fouling is 0.4 % of global Gross Domestic Product (UEF, 2001). This high cost has lead to frequent study of the fouling problem, including numerous books and conferences on the subject (Somerscales and Knudsen, 1981; Melo et al., 1988; Bott, 1995). Much of this work has focused on particular industries. Crude oil processing, dairy and food processing, and nuclear reactor cooling are all industries that have conducted a large amount of research aimed at understanding and mitigating fouling."

Read this Thesis for details...

Particulate Fouling of HVAC Heat Exchanger
Particulate fouling of HVAC heat exchangers can lead to negative energy and indoor air quality impacts. This work investigated the mechanisms and consequences of particle deposition on fin-and-tube heat exchangers.
Jeffrey Siegel

Please constantly do heat exchanger maintenance to minimise OPEX.

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posted by Webworm, 6:28 AM | link | 1 Comments |

Tuesday, June 26, 2007




Have you ever seen or heard about SELF CLEANING HEAT EXCHANGER ?

Self Cleaning heat exchanger operating concept is mainly base on fluidization concept. It commonly used for severe fouling service. It has been proposed in 1970s and used for seawater application.






KLAREN
, one of supplier for SELF CLEANING HEAT EXCHANGER...

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posted by Webworm, 6:14 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Monday, June 25, 2007


An article on Heat exchanger Fouling for designer & Operator...



Predicting and accounting for heat exchanger fouling
Here are some insights into the design, operation and research issues associated with
Heat Exchanger fouling.

T. REG. BOTT, UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM


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posted by Webworm, 7:17 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Sunday, June 24, 2007



I have been knowing lower fouling factor in Plate Heat Exchanger for many years. However, i don't understanding the main reason until i read this article...
Fouling in Heat Exchangers (PHE)
This article has briefly discussed types of fouling, fouling factor used in Shell and Tube
Heat Exchangers for common fluids, why lower fouling factor in plate heat exchnager (PHE) and, design consideration to reduce effects of fouling....(From BAY INDUSTRIAL)
For those who involves in plant operation, please read this...
"According to Pritchard and Thackery (Harwell Laboratories), about 15% of the maintenance costs of a process plant can be attributed to heat exchangers and boilers, and of this, half is probably caused by fouling. Fouling can be very costly in refinery and petrochemical plants".
Please ensure upstream filter / strainer constant maintain...










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posted by Webworm, 12:19 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Friday, June 22, 2007


Heat exchanger fouling has been a headache problem which can not be avoided...however many of us may not aware of it mechanism, preventiona and treatment....

Heat Exchanger Fouling Causes Problems In Gas and Liquid System

The article presented six (6) distinctive different mechanism causing Heat Exchangers Fouling e.g. Crystallization, Sedimentation, Chemical reaction & Polymerization, coking, Biological growth and corrosion. This article will only focus on particulate fouling.It discusses particulate fouling mechanisms, prevention and treatment. This article also presented Prection Model for Particulate Fouling by Kern & Seaton.
by Reza Hashemi and Robert L. Brown, Jr.,
Pall Corporation










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posted by Webworm, 9:12 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Thursday, June 21, 2007


Plate heat exchanger - Remove some plates...will the pressure drop across the exchanger increase or decrease ?
In a Plate heat exchangers, there are number of plates for the 'hot' fluid and given number of plates for the 'cold' fluid. The cold fluid flows through the cold layers in a parallel type arrangement, same for the hot fluid. The hot fluid layers are typically laid counter-current to the cold layers. By removing plates, you will effectively be reducing the free flow area. This will increase the velocity, which is proportional to the square root of the pressure drop, it is anticipated an increase in pressure drop.







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posted by Webworm, 6:43 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Wednesday, June 20, 2007


Nitrogen purging is common in Oil & Gas, refinery, Petrochemical & Chemical plant. Some factors you may need to consider...
Methodology
Generally Nitrogen purging is conducted to evacaute oxygen content to a level low enough so that it has no effect to process fluid. If you need to reduce to a VERY low oxygen level e.g. light water reactor, you may need to consider other methods.
N2 quality
You may need to assess you N2 quality. Plant N2 may contain 3% - 5% Oxygen, if your system need to go below 3%, obviously no way you can use plant nitrogen. You may need to use Liquified Nitrogen which may have >99.5% purity.
Criticallity of purging section
If you are purging reactor section, please always consider high purity N2.
Continuous versus Pressurise/depressurise
Large volume system better to apply pressurise/depresurise method. Plant Nitrogen supply pressure probably in the range of 8-10 barg. It may not be sufficient. You may take long time to purge your system. You may consider the Liquified Nitrogen.
Minimise N2 usage
If your system can take water after purging e.g. amine system, you may consider to fill the system with water and follow by N2 purging (replacing the water content). This significantly reduce N2 consumption.
Safety
"Nitrogen is a notorious and stealth killer!". Try to limit the volume of purging section filled with N2. The discharge section should be directed to minimum manning area.
Noise level
Normally pressurise / depressurise method will create high pitch and high SPL noise. You may need to comply to authority requirements during purging.








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posted by Webworm, 8:42 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Tuesday, June 19, 2007


JUNE 19, 2007
DUMPLING FESTIVAL for Chinese community...
The Dumpling Festival (or Duan Wu Jie) commemorates the death of Qu Yuan, a patriot and the first great poet in Chinese history, who lived during the Warring States period. "Qu Yuan" lived in the Chinese Kingdom of Chu and served the government with integrity as Minister of State. He was disturbed by the corruption and by the court intrigues of many courtiers who resented his talent, popularity and sense of righteousness. One version said that other officials convinced the Emperor that Qu Yuan was corrupt, that his plea for reforms be ignored and had him banished from the Kingdom.



For years, he wandered the countryside composing poems expressing his patriotism and love for the people. Either as an act of despair or an ultimate protest against the corrupt government, Qu Yuan threw himself into the Mei Lo river ( in today's Hunan province ) on the fifth day of the fifth month in the year 278 B.C. Qu Yuan opted to commit suicide rather than lose face and honour by serving a corrupt government. He composed two famous poems known as "Ai Ying" and "Huai Sha" before jumping into the river with a large stone tied to himself. Grief-stricken local fishermen who witnessed Qu Yuan's desperate act, tried to save the patriotic poet. They sailed up and down the river to look for him and desperately thrashed the water with their oars and paddles to scare off the hungry fishes which might eat his body. To commemorate the patriotic man, the fishermen and rural town folks threw cooked rice dumplings wrapped in silk or banana leaves, into the water in order to appease the spirits of the river on his death anniversary. These rice dumplings are called "Tsung Tze" or "Ma Chang".









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posted by Webworm, 4:51 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Monday, June 18, 2007

Today wanna to bring to you a good article (i think) related to Heat Exchanger...
Effectively Design Shell-and Tube Heat Exchanger
This article explains the basics of exchanger thermal design, covering topics such as: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) components; classification of STHEs according to construction and according to service; data needed for thermal design; tube side design; shell side design, including tube layout, baffling, and shell side pressure drop; and mean temperature difference. The basic equations for tube side and shell side heat transfer and pressure drop are well known; here we focus on the application of these correlations for the optimum design of heat exchangers. A follow up article on advanced topics in shell-and-tube heat exchanger design, such as allocation of shell side and tube side fluids, use of multiple shells, over design, and fouling, is scheduled to appear in the next issue.








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posted by Webworm, 6:31 PM | link | 0 Comments |

Saturday, June 16, 2007



2nd weekend of JUNE...FATHER's day...

A Celebration In Honor of All Fathers


Happy Father Day to all BABA...


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posted by Webworm, 10:38 AM | link | 0 Comments |





KOCH HTC...known to be special Heat exchanger provider...The following available FREE from KOCH HEAT TRANSFER...enjoy learning...


Design and Application of TWISTED TUBE ® HEAT EXCHANGER
Conventional baffled shell-and-tube exchangers, while having an excellent record of acceptance and functionality, have some notable limitations. In particular, the shell-side path is wasteful on pressure drop, limits maximum thermal effectiveness and encourages dead spots where fouling or corrosion may occur. This paper describes an advanced shell-and-tube design, known as the TWISTED TUBE ® Heat Exchanger, which is inherently able to overcome these limitation in addition to providing the further advantages of tube-side enhancement and good tube support to reduce susceptibility to vibration. The paper compares the Twisted Tube ® exchanger with conventional designs and with other advanced designs.
CALCUATING LIQUID REGIMES
This article was printed in Hydrocarbon Engineering magazine dated April 1999 and describes the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in heat exchangers.

HEAT TRANSFER INNOVATORS
Driven by competitive market forces and stricter environmental compliance, the whole question of chemical plant energy consumption is receiving renewed attention with an eye towards: 1) process changes through the use of new heat transfer technologies2) heat recovery and pinch technology3) accurate fouling prediction and reduction4) increasing plant throughput. This paper will re-examine the basic principles of economical heat transfer as it relates to the issues listed.

HEAT TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
This article appeared in the October 1997 issue of The International Journal of Hydrocarbon Engineering, and examines the basic principles of economical heat recovery, with relation to both overall plant energy efficiency and the application of pinch technology, which assures maximum energy recovery.
TARGET FOR COST EFFECTIVE HEAT RECOVERY ENHANCEMENTS.

This paper was prepared for presentation for the CE Expo Conference in Houston, Texas in June, 1999. Today's low energy costs result in many projects for energy reduction being insufficiently attractive to justify their installation. The payback times for such projects may be unattractive due to the need for piping modifications to install new exchanger area. This paper presents a simplified analysis of a project to install high performance tube bundles into existing shells with no piping modifications. It uses a crude unit heat train as an example. It further introduces a new Pinch concept which is used to identify the optimum choice of exchanger bundles to be replaced.
TEATING OF TWISTED TUBE ® EXCHANGERS IN TRANSITION FLOW REGIME
This paper describes testing of advanced shell and tube design with TWISTED TUBE ® Technology.
TWISTED TUBE ® HEAT EXCHANGER : TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
This article was presented at the November 9th, 1999 "Latest Advances in Offshore Processing" conference in Aberdeen, Scotland. Heat exchangers are usually classified by the compactness factor in m2/m3 and it is generally accepted that values greater than 700 m2/m3 characterize compact equipment. Although shell-and-tube exchangers can have high a compactness factor, compact heat exchangers are often referred to as non-tubular devices. This paper describes an advanced shell-and-tube heat exchanger using twisted tubes. Recent advances in the range of design and operational reliability have made twisted tube heat exchangers attractive in various industries, including offshore application. Taking into account size and convenience considerations, these exchangers can be cost effective in a wider range of applications than the niches currently being used in the process industry.



TWISTED TUBE ® TECHNOLOGY




HELICAL BAFFLE HEAT EXCHANGER
Brown Fintube ® DOUBLE-PIPE & MULTITUBE HAIRPIN HEAT EXCHANGERS



BREECH LOCK™ CLOSURE

TANK HEATING EQUIPMENT




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posted by Webworm, 9:17 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Friday, June 15, 2007






API Heat Transfer founded in 1947 in North America, a manufacturer for varieties of heat exchangers include Airtech Basco and Schmidt Bretten ...



HEAT EXCHANGERS...
Basco Type 500 Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
Basco/Whitlock Hub-Design Heat Exchangers
Basco/Whitlock U-Tube Heat Exchangers
Basco Type OP Heat Exchangers
Basco PLAC Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
Basco Type ES Extended Surface Plate Fin Heat Exchanger
API Basco Engineered Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Shell & Tube product literature & brochures
Airtech Aluminum Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Airtech Aluminum Fan-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Airtech PCR Aluminum Heat Exchangers
Air cooled product literature & brochures
Schmidt-Bretten Gasketed Plate Heat Exchangers
Semi-Welded Plate Heat Exchangers
Welded Plate Heat Exchangers
Schmidt-Bretten Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers
PHE literature & brochures
Thermal System literature & brochures

MANUAL...
Basco Type ES Installation & Maintenance Guide

Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger Installation and Maintenance Manual
Airtech Air Cooled Installation, Operating & Maintenance Instructions

ANIMATION...
Animation of Basco Type ES Disassembly
Gasketed Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger Animation




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posted by Webworm, 5:56 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Thursday, June 14, 2007

Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger...Have you ever use it ?


Two independent fluids flowing in alternate layers at opposite directions (counter flow) to enhance heat exchange. Special designed corrugated plates to increase the heat transfer coefficient and lower potential fouling. They are brazed in a vacuum furnace and helium pressure tested to insure leak-free performance.


GEA FlatPlate™ ... A well known Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger...



Uniqueness...
High Efficiency
The embossed pattern of the heat transfer plates promotes high turbulence turbulence at low fluid velocities. The high turbulence results in very high heat transfer coefficients.
Compact Size
The WCR brazed plate heat exchanger requires less floor space due to the high thermal efficiency of the stainless steel plates as compared to other types of heat exchangers. The plates are brazed together at high temperatures, allowing the heat exchanger to be compact, leak tight, and rugged. the WCR brazed heat exchanger can be anywhere from 50% to 80% smaller than other types of heat exchangers.
Close Approach Temperatures
Close-approach temperatures of 1-2°F (0.5-1.0°C) are possible because of true counter flow and high heat transfer efficiency of the plates. This is an important factor in regeneration and heat recovery processes.
High Temperature and Pressure Ratings
Maximum working pressures from 300 psi to 650 psi, and temperature ratings of 350°F.

FlatPlateSELECT™ - Selection Software Available from GEA...

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posted by Webworm, 6:02 AM | link | 0 Comments |

Wednesday, June 13, 2007




Wolverine Tube, Inc. copper and copper alloy tube, fabricated products, brazing alloys, fluxes and lead-free solder, as well as copper and copper alloy rod, bar and other products manufacturer...



Wolverine offer (FREE) two good Heat Transfer Databook...
Wolverine Heat Transfer Data book
A data book discusses on basic heat transfer, sensible heat transfer, Trufin tubes in condensing heat transfer, Trufin tubes in air-cool heat exchanger, Trufin tubes in boiling heat transfer, etc
K.J. Bell, A.C. Mueller, Wolverien Tube Inc.


Wolverine Heat Transfer Engineering Data book
A data book discusses on design considerations for Enhanced heat exchangers, single-phase shell-side flows & heat transfer, heat transfer to air-cooled heat exchangers, condensation on external surfaces, condensation inside tubes, boiling heat transfer on external surfaces, two phase flow pattern, falling film evaporation, thermodynamics of refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil, void fraction in two-phase flows, post dryout heat transfer...
John R. Thome,
Wolverien Tube Inc.



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posted by Webworm, 7:46 AM | link | 1 Comments |